Boron-doped Diamond Products

Flexible Boron-doped Diamond

Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is an excellent electrode material with a large potential window in aqueous solution and low background current. The wider potential window and lower background currents make the BDD material very attractive for electrochemical analysis experiments. Reactions occurring in potential ranges from about -0.5V to -1.2V and about +1.8V to 2.5V can now be analyzed which could not be analyzed on traditional electrode surfaces such as Au and Pt. The lower background current allows for higher sensitivity and lower detection limits.

2mm Disk Electrodes

© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

Disk Electrodes

Our disk electrodes offer superior electrochemical performance to other commercially available electrodes. These electrodes embed a 2mm polished BDD disk in a 6cm long x 6mm outer diameter PEEK housing. Custom orders with other chemical resistant housings, including PTFE, are possible. Each electrode comes with a silicon O-ring for varable depth in an electrochemical cell. A silicon electrode end-cap is also included for proper storage when not in use.

With a lower capacitive background current and wider potential window to other competing electrode materials such as glassy carbon (GC), Fraunhofer CCD BDD disk electrodes can be used for electroanalytical measurements with ease. As seen (above or below), many electrode materials including GC exhibit background voltammetric peaks that can potentially mask analyte current measurements. This is not observed on our BDD disk electrodes as flat, featureless background currents are measured.
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

Microelectrode Array

Our BDD microelectrode arrays (MEA) further decrease the intrinsically low background current of BDD, yielding electrodes capable of ultra-sensitive analyte measurements. These MEAs can be fabricated on various substrates with several individual electrode diameters, center-to-center spacing and patterns.

With excellent steady state behavior obtained from all as-fabricated MEAs, we have the capability to produce electrodes for a variety of applications in electroanalytical chemistry. These applications include traditional cyclic voltammetric analyses, trace heavy metal determination and neurotransmitter sensing using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, among others. Our BDD MEAs are fabricated to meet customer demands, whether that be housed as a traditional electrochemical rod-electrode or a microchip for small sample volumes.

 

C.A. Rusinek, M.F. Becker, R. Rechenberg, T. Schuelke

Fabrication and Characterization of boron-doped diamond electrode arrays of varied geometry

Electrochemistry Communications (73), 2016, 10-14

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2016.10.006

© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

Microelectrode Array

© Photo Fraunhofer CCD
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

Hexagonal Microelectrode Array

Electrochemical Oxidation with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

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Anodic Oxidation Electrode Stack

BDD electrodes have the proper combination stability, ruggedness, and lifetime for use in electrochemical oxidation applications, including electrochemical advanced oxidation. These BDD electrodes are fabricated on metal substrates (typically niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), or molybdenum (Mo)) for proper mechanical stability.  This includes but is not limited to individual electrode plates, multi-electrode stacks, or metal-stubs for a rotating-disk electrode (RDE) setup. Custom designs and substrates are possible, if desired. 

Our BDD electrodes have shown promise for use in many applications of water treatment. This includes per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) remediation as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and total nitrogen removal from contaminated water. Electrochemical oxidation processes with BDD electrodes can also work to reduce turbidity of wastewater samples. Fraunhofer CCD also has the capability to coat expanded metal mesh and other like-substrates/geometries for water disinfection and electrochemical ozone generation. For all electrochemical oxidation applications, customization of BDD electrodes to fit your experimental needs is often required.  

Additionally, if you are interested in investigating electrochemical oxidation using BDD electrodes for your water treatment application, we can test your water for you! COD, TOC, TN, and TAN measurements will be completed, but analysis can be customized for your specific needs. 

© Photo Fraunhofer CCD
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

Boron-Doped Diamond Fabrication Capabilities

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Microelectrode Array

Boron-doped diamond (BDD) fabrication capabilities range from diamond growth via post growth fabrication to assembly and material evaluation. BDD films can be applied on a variety of substrate materials and geometries. Post diamond growth capabilities include polishing, photolithography, etching, metallization and laser-cutting.

Diamond is grown on a variety of substrates including but not limited to certain metals (including expanded metal mesh), quartz and silicon. With the application and product in mind, substrates are carefully evaluated and individually pre-treated for optimized diamond growth and resulting diamond materials. Depending on the system used, up to 12” diameter substrates can be coated. Clean room microfabrication processes allow for 4” diameter wafer processing including PVD (metallization) and CVD (SiO2 and Si3N4) thin film deposition, photolithography and plasma etching.

Diamond lapping, polishing and laser cutting complement the Center's capabilities striving towards a one stop solutions provider for BDD products and prototypes.

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BDD prototypes

© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

500um x 500um BDD windows on silicon substrate

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5mm diameter niobium stub coated with BDD

Boron-Doped Diamond Optically Transparent Electrodes

Combining the advantage of rugged BDD material with optical transparency, our BDD OTEs are excellent tools for spectroelectrochemical measurements. Applications range from the general study of redox chemistry (inorganic, organic, biological molecules) to spectroelectrochemical sensing where excellent sensitivity and selectivity can be obtained.

 

The BDD films are grown on quartz substrates and exhibit a wide range of optical transparency.  Measurements can be made below 300 nm, a quality certain OTE materials can not achieve The optical and electronic properties can be altered depending on your experimental requirements; a more conductive film will be less optically transparent, while a more optically transparent film will be less conductive. Custom dimensions can be accommodated to fit a specific geometry.

 

C.A. Rusinek, M.F. Becker, R. Rechenberg, N. Kaval, K. Ojo, W.R. Heineman

Polymer-coated Boron Doped Diamond Optically Transparent Electrodes for Spectroelectrochemical Sensors

Electroanalysis (28), 2016, 2228, 2236

DOI: 0.1002/elan.201600212

© Photo Fraunhofer CCD
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD
© Photo Fraunhofer CCD

Diamond Plates

We are also pleased to offer free-standing BDD plates for a variety of applications to fit specific experimental needs. BDD plates exhibit high electrical conductivity that is maintained at elevated temperatures, excellent mechanical and chemical rigidity, and long-lifetime.  BDD plates are as-grown, unpolished, and 400 μm thick. The material is typically offered in 10 mm x 10 mm geometries (picture shown). However, Fraunhofer CCD can accommodate other geometries, where desired.